#### How to standardize data in Excel

Standardizing data in Excel is a useful technique for making the data more consistent and appropriate for statistical analysis. It involves transforming the values of a dataset so that they have a mean of zero and a standard deviation of one. This means that each value is expressed as the number of standard deviations it is away from the mean. This is also known as normalizing or z-scoring the data.

To standardize data in Excel, you can use the built-in STANDARDIZE function, which takes three arguments: the value to be standardized, the mean of the dataset, and the standard deviation of the dataset. The function returns the z-score for each value in the dataset.

For example, suppose you have a dataset of test scores in column A, with a mean of 75 and a standard deviation of 10. To standardize the test scores, you can enter the following formula in column B:

=STANDARDIZE(A2, 75, 10)

This formula will calculate the z-score for the test score in cell A2. You can copy this formula down to column B to get the z-scores for all the test scores in column A.

The z-scores tell you how far each test score is from the mean, in terms of standard deviations. For example, a z-score of 1.5 means that the test score is 1.5 standard deviations above the mean, while a z-score of -0.5 means that the test score is 0.5 standard deviations below the mean.

You can use the z-scores to compare the test scores across different groups or populations, or to perform statistical tests that assume normality, such as t-tests or ANOVA.